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中国建材行业一周大事记(2.22-2.26)

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 发展绿色建材不能忽视集群力量 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

成都家居卖场风起云涌 卖场应该重新型体验

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

最近两年你都没有涨薪水
5. 弗莱德·赫什三人组(Fred Hersch Trio),《漂浮》(Floating), Palmetto。赫什目前的钢琴三人组由约翰·艾伯特(John Hébert)担任贝斯,埃里克·麦克菲森(Eric McPherson)担任鼓手,他们有着精确的优雅。这张专辑的结构如同一场夜间俱乐部演出,包括若干重新编配的标准曲,以及几首强劲而充满情感的原创曲,有着强大的表现力。
《每日经济新闻》引用一位专家的话称,银行业已经经历了一个低利润增长期,并且将持续很长一段时间。该专家表示,在过去的十几年里,银行业每年净利润增长达到35%至40%。但现在每年都不到1%,甚至有的银行都进入亏损状态。
“Given the unfavourable reaction to the August depreciation, we think any further depreciation will not take place soon,” said Louis Kuijs, an economist at Oxford Economics based in Hong Kong. “In our view the October trade data keep pressure on [the government] for more domestic easing.”
Wuxi, in coastal Jiangsu province, retained the top spot for a second month with growth of 4.9 per cent,
惊慌随之而来,不过这名少年很快镇定下来,他决定把控局面,寻找逃生出路。
但行业观察人士说,这样的观点忽略了一个中国在创新方面与西方竞争对手直接对峙的领域:让中国版本更具互动性、使用起来也更有趣的那些额外功能。

Among the top 50 richest women in the world, entrepreneurs from the Chinese mainland account for 56%.
We will improve mechanisms that give incentives and allow for and address mistakes so as to support those who are dedicated to their work and stand behind those who live up to their responsibilities. Every one of us in government must take an active approach to our work and have the courage to tackle the toughest problems, we must work closely with the people, using concrete action to make progress in development, and using genuine hard work to realize a bright future.
听起来像是泰勒斯威夫特,但事实上,却是她一直以来的竞争对手,凯迪派瑞。这主要归因为她的棱镜世界巡回演唱会。现在演唱会的热潮已归于平静,派瑞今年凭此吸入13.5千万美金。在我们评分期间的126场演出中,她平均每个城市赚得2百万美金,再加上与科蒂,克莱尔和封面女郎的合约,得到了她的总共收入。
它曾经是一家傲视业界、富可敌国的投资公司,能从世界一流的金融机构源源不断地获得贷款。它用借来的钱大把大把地押注,购买资产,获得更高的回报。但当这些资产的市值下跌,贷款机构开始要求更多的抵押品,最后这家公司竟然轰然倒塌。很多惊魂未定的贷款机构全面收紧贷款要求,造成整体的信贷紧缩。
Taken together, these events and strategic initiatives highlight the Chinese aerospace industry’s realization that, in order to become a globally competitive player, it will need depth as much as breadth. After getting their hands on both ends of the value chain—aircraft design and final assembly—the Chinese now understand that what will make or break their industry over the long term is what happens in the middle of the value chain, at the component and subsystem levels. And that is why China’s ambition to compete with Boeing and Airbus, as well as with GE and Rolls-Royce for aircraft engines, is now more credible than ever.

Footnotes

  • 北大荒看好PPP 跨界收购照明工程公司
  • The UK and France are the two powerhouses of business education in Europe. Nearly half of the schools listed are from either the UK (20) or France (19). French MiMs outperform UK programmes in terms of ranking, salary ($55,000 versus $49,000) and student numbers (9,000 versus 1,200). However, UK MBAs outdo French programmes in terms of numbers (18 schools in this ranking versus five) and student numbers (1,900 versus 1,300) though not in terms of salary ($115,000 versus $137,000).

Think you’ve had some bad job interviews this year? This survey is guaranteed tcheer you up (unless you happen tbe part of it). When staffing firm OfficeTeam asked 600 managers across North America tdescribe the most embarrassing interview blunders they had seen in 2014, here’s what they said.
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广义货币M2增长11.3%,低于13%左右的预期目标;
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Her piece, titled “Back to Mother Nature," depicts an elaborate water-cleaning machine. Zhang worked with a team of artists at Google to animate her drawing.
She created a whole world around the device -- one populated by humans, a whale in a top hat and dragons.

旧楼装电梯 应引入补偿金制度

References

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