Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 北京公积金新政：权威解答.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
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Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
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A sequel to X Men: Days of Future Past, the latest instalment in the X Men series will see them fight the villain Apocalypse. The movie might see the return of a few older characters and a lot of new ones. We don't really know anymore than that, but it is going to be one amazing film, that's for sure.
The report also found that the top cities in intellectual capital and innovation and technological readiness also achieved high scores in the overall ranking, a clear indication that technologically advanced cities were more likely to earn the title of "cities of opportunity".
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Pork prices, which are heavily weighted in the food-focused basket of goods used to calculate consumer inflation, rose 4.8 per cent.
The study is available online.